Sarajevo is the capital and largest city of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Nestled within the greater Sarajevo valley of Bosnia, it is surrounded by the Dinaric Alps and situated along the Miljacka River in the heart of the Balkans. It is the political, financial, social and cultural center of Bosnia and Herzegovina and a prominent center of culture in the Balkans. Due to its long history of religious and cultural diversity, Sarajevo is sometimes called the “Jerusalem of Europe” or “Jerusalem of the Balkans” because it is one of only a few major European cities to have a mosque, Catholic church, Orthodox church and synagogue within the same neighborhood. Although settlement in the area stretches back to prehistoric times, the modern city arose as an Ottoman stronghold in the 15th century. During the history, several time Sarajevo got the attention from around the world. In 1885, Sarajevo was the first city in Europe and the second city in the world to have a full-time electric tram network running through the city, following San Francisco. In 1914, it was the site of the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria by local Young Bosnia activist Gavrilo Princip that sparked World War I, which also ended Austro-Hungarian rule in Bosnia and resulted in the creation of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. Later, after World War II, the establishment of the Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina within the Second Yugoslavia led to a massive expansion of Sarajevo, then the constituent republic’s capital, which culminated with the hosting of the 1984 Winter Olympics marking a prosperous era for the city. However, after the start of the Yugoslav Wars, the city suffered the longest siege of a capital city in the history of modern warfare. Sarajevo has been undergoing post-war reconstruction, and is the fastest growing city in Bosnia and Herzegovina.